Marriage Experts Keep Love Alive for Valentine’s Day

Newswise — NEW YORK (January 2012) — Love is in the air, but Valentine’s Day shouldn’t be the only time to express love for your partner; rather, it should serve as a reminder to devote time and energy to your relationship every day.

“Valentine’s Day is not a day for arguing with your spouse or significant other. In fact, no day is good for that. Couples should spend more time acknowledging the positive aspects of their relationship and put aside their complaints,” says Dr. Philip Lee, a clinical associate professor of psychiatry at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center and co-head of the Marital and Family Therapy program.

His wife, Dr. Diane Rudolph, also a clinical associate professor of psychiatry at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell, and co-head of the Marital and Family Therapy program, says, “Although most couples believe it is healthy to clear the air and not keep anger ‘bottled up,’ constant arguing usually leaves both partners feeling bad about the relationship.”

Dr. Lee and Dr. Rudolph have been counseling couples for more than 25 years and have been married for more than 20 years. The doctors share their advice on how to keep the flame of love burning past Valentine’s Day.

• Be considerate but not too practical when you consider buying a Valentine’s Day gift — remember that this day is about celebrating the charming nature of love.

• Be diplomatic. Instead of screaming and throwing a tantrum about the things that make you upset, praise your partner for doing the things that are helpful to you.

• Give your partner space. Give yourselves a chance to unwind before tackling the evening’s chores. You both need some transition time after work, and once you’ve had that time you will both be much better listeners, and probably more willing to cooperate with each other.

• Remember the good old days. Almost everyone remembers the “early days” of the relationship as more fun than the present. It’s probably because you weren’t arguing about how to get to the restaurant, where to sit or how much to drink.

• Be polite. Try being polite for a week starting on Valentine’s Day. There’s no shame in saying “Thanks for picking up the kids” or “Great-looking dinner; can’t wait to try that chicken.” While it may seem silly to talk that way to your partner, just remember you would do the same for a business partner, employee or your child.

• Break the cycle of arguments. You don’t have to voice your displeasure about everything. Rather than “expressing yourself” in a negative way, break the cycle of blame and recrimination by treating your spouse more like a friend or co-worker. You wouldn’t argue with your co-worker about mundane details because you want to have a civil relationship with this person.

• Never say never. Don’t begin sentences with “You never…,” i.e., “You never clean up after…,” “You never take my feelings into account…,” or “You never think of anyone but yourself…” This places your spouse on the defensive and accomplishes nothing — it is a losing start. Try something like “You know what would be really great?” or “It would really help me if you could…”

• Say “thank you.” Show your appreciation for all of the things that your partner does no matter how small or how you may really feel. Something as simple as a “thank you” can make a dramatic difference in your relationship in a matter of weeks.
o “Thanks for picking up the kids.”
o “Oh, look, the dry cleaning is back. Thanks, honey, for picking it up.”

• Just listen. Try just listening to your partner without offering suggestions, criticism or a solution to his/her problems. Most of the time your spouse just wants you to listen and calmly empathize without saying any more. Even if it seems pointless to you, that’s often all that the person needs.

Released: 1/13/2012

Source: NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center

Related Link:

http://www.newswise.com/articles/marriage-experts-keep-love-alive-for-valentine-s-day

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The Paradox of Gift Giving: More Not Better

Newswise — Holiday shoppers, take note. Marketing and psychology researchers have found that in gift giving, bundling together an expensive “big” gift and a smaller “stocking stuffer” reduces the perceived value of the overall package for the recipient.

Suppose you’re trying to impress a loved one with a generous gift this holiday season, says Kimberlee Weaver, assistant professor of marketing in the Pamplin College of Business. One option is to buy them a luxury cashmere sweater. A second option is to add in a $10 gift card.

If their budget allows, most gift givers would choose the second option, as it comprises two gifts — one big, one small, Weaver says. Ironically, however, the gift recipient is likely to perceive the cashmere sweater alone as more generous than the combination of the same sweater and gift card. “The gift giver or presenter does not anticipate this difference in perspectives and has just cheapened the gift package by spending an extra $10 on it.”

Weaver is part of a research team that recently discovered, through a series of studies, what the team has called the “Presenter’s Paradox.” The paradox arises because gift givers and gift recipients have different perspectives, Weaver says. Gift givers follow a “more-is-better” logic; recipients evaluate the overall package.

“People who evaluate a bundle, such as a gift package, follow an averaging strategy, which leads to less favorable judgments when mildly favorable pieces (the gift card) are added to highly favorable pieces (the sweater). The luxury sweater represents a generous ‘big’ gift. Adding on a ‘little’ gift makes the total package seems less big.”

The same contradictory effect can be found in other situations, says Weaver, whose research article, “The Presenter’s Paradox,” co-authored with Stephen Garcia and Norbert Schwarz of the University of Michigan, has been accepted for publication in the Journal of Consumer Research.

“People who present a bundle of information assume that every favorable piece adds to their overall case and include it in the bundle they present,” she says. However, notes Garcia, associate professor of psychology and organizational studies at the University of Michigan, “this strategy backfires, because the addition of mildly favorable information dilutes the impact of highly favorable information in the eyes of evaluators. Hence, presenters of information would be better off if they limited their presentation to their most favorable information — just as gift givers would be better off to limit their present to their most favorite gift.”

Weaver and her co-authors found that the paradox was strongly evident in seven studies across many product domains, from bundles of music to hotel advertisements, scholarships, and even “negative” items such as penalty structures.

When asked to design a penalty for littering, for example, those who were put in charge preferred a penalty that comprised a $750 fine plus 2 hours of community service over a penalty that comprised only the $750 fine. However, perceivers evaluated the former penalty as less severe than the latter, Weaver says. “Adding a couple of hours of community service made the overall penalty appear less harsh and undermined its deterrence value.”

The discovery of the Presenter’s Paradox sheds new light on how to best present information, says Weaver. “Whether it is a public relations expert pondering which reviews to include on a book jacket, a music producer considering which songs to include in a music album, or a legal team building up arguments for a case, they all face the important task of deciding what information to include in their presentations. So do consumers who apply for a job and homeowners who try to sell their house.”

All of them, she says, run the risk of inadvertently diluting the very message they seek to convey by their efforts to strengthen it. “Fortunately, there is a simple remedy: take the perspective of the evaluator and ask yourself how the bundle will appear to someone who will average across its components. Doing so will alert you to the fact that others will not always share your sense that more is better.”

“Prompting consumers to consider the overall picture entices them to adopt a holistic perspective, which allows them to correctly anticipate evaluators’ judgments,” says Schwarz, professor of marketing and psychology at the University of Michigan. “But when left to their own devices, presenters are unlikely to notice that evaluators do not share their more-is-better rule.”

Released: 12/12/2011

Source: Virginia Tech (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)

Related Link:

http://newswise.com/articles/the-paradox-of-gift-giving-more-not-better

Some Great Ideas on How to Minimize Your Stress During this Holiday Season

Photo Credit: Royalty-Free image, Minimize your holiday stress by making time for yourself and getting a good night's sleep, says a Ryerson University psychology expert.Newswise — The holidays are a festive time of year filled with friends and family. But with our focus so much on others, we can forget ourselves and become inexplicably stressed and sad. The key to enjoying the upcoming season is being aware of the things (and people) that affect us:

1. Manage your expectations: With so much going on, particularly with other people, this may not be the best time to expect perfection. Don’t set yourself up for undue stress by hosting parties for dozens of people, complete with a gourmet menu and stunning décor. Starting with modest and achievable expectations increases the likelihood that you will avoid disappointment.

2. Add a good night’s sleep to your “to-do” list”: Don’t deprive yourself of sleep to get more done. Sleep deprivation is a major mood killer—consider scaling back your to-do list and get some rest. An irritable host will be noticed long before the place cards and napkin rings that you stayed up until 2 a.m. to finish.

3. Mind your sleep schedule over the holidays: Sleep is a major factor in mood. With a holiday schedule full of late night parties, hours of travel, shopping, cooking and cleaning you quickly find yourself deprived of a few hours night after night. Adopting a sleep schedule that is radically different from the schedule you keep during the year can produce jetlag-like symptoms of fatigue, insomnia, and poor mood. Children are especially susceptible to this: watch your young child’s mood disintegrate with a later and more varied holiday schedule.

4. Avoid “crashing”: The holidays are filled with foods that initially boost our mood and then produce longer term sugar crashes, sluggishness, and bloating. Eat healthy meals throughout the holidays and snack on healthier options such as fruits and vegetables before a party so that you are less likely to fill up on junk food and sweets. Including healthier foods in your diet will stabilize your blood sugar, rather than cause it to spike, which means a happier and more energetic you.

5. Know your limits: We all know the holidays can be a prime time for the airing of family issues and grievances. If visiting a particular relative ruins the holidays for you, devise a new plan that limits your exposure to that person or situation. If having dinner with a cantankerous aunt leaves you with resentment and ill feelings for days afterwards, skip it. It’s better to exercise good self-care over the holidays than to agree to plans that will result in a tense atmosphere and hurt feelings.

6. Make time for you: People often forget to prioritize themselves throughout the year and it gets even worse over the holidays. Take some time just for yourself. If you haven’t had a chance to do this during the day, set aside time before bed to wind down and relax. Even a half hour walk or soak in the tub at the end of the day will make a world of difference.

7. Still tossing and turning all night?: If you find yourself lying in bed with visions of budgets, menus and obligations running through your head – get out of bed. Leave your room to find something that relaxes you and return to bed when you are sleepy. Being upset or awake in the place where you should be finding rest can lead to longer term associations between your bed and stress and anxiety.

Released: 12/8/2011

Source: Ryerson University

Related Link:

http://www.newswise.com/articles/minimize-your-stress-this-holiday-season-ryerson-expert

Worth Remembering As The New Year Approaches….Resolutions Are a Waste If You Don’t Plan to Achieve Them

Newswise — Those resolutions you promise yourself you will keep each year probably look a little like this — lose weight, exercise daily, quit smoking, save money, etc. Though these are great personal commitments to make, one University of Alabama at Birmingham expert says New Year’s resolutions are, for most, a waste of time.

“Many of us wind up making short-lived changes that rarely pan out. We resolve to be different or live better, and then spend a year not achieving these goals. We waste time making unmet resolutions yearly,” explains Joshua Klapow, Ph.D., a UAB clinical psychologist and author of the book, Living SMART: Five Essential Skills to Change Your Health Habits Forever.

This is not an excuse to throw in the towel and get fat or lazy. Klapow says Jan. 1 is a great time to start living the way you want to be. But, you have to be serious about it and create a game plan so the resolutions are implemented and not squandered.

“Without a course of action, these changes will not fall into place. It’s not enough just to be inspired,” Klapow explains.

If you want to achieve it — say losing weight, for example — you have to be detailed about it. Klapow says you have to outline the days and times you will go the gym, the menu adjustments you will make and who in your circle can help keep you accountable for these goals.

But before your plans get too elaborate, Klapow advises you to do a gut-check.

“Ask yourself, ‘do I really want to do this?’ If your heart isn’t in it, it’s not going to happen. It’s better to be honest than to fail,” says Klapow.

Other tips while planning for the new you:
• Don’t bite off more than you can chew — shoot for success instead of the stars
• Make resolutions reasonable by setting short- and long-term goals
• Be prepared and willing to make adjustments to your resolutions

Once those resolutions are in place, and the New Year has begun, it’s time to implement them. Make promises for change that is life-long instead of temporary.

“Monitoring your progress is very important, but simply keeping a mental track will not cut it. If you are dieting, write down the foods you eat. If you want to spend less, write down your expenses. This will give you a visual account of what is working and what is not,” explains Klapow.

A written record also can help you with the three-day rule: If you’ve missed three days of your new habit, write down the reasons you stopped, pick an exact date to re-start and put this somewhere you will see it. Klapow says this is a way to return to good habits.

Noting the barriers that exist between you and your goal also is important.

“You have to arrange your life for success. Buying junk food for your family while you are trying to diet is not going to help. If you want to save money — stop carrying credit cards. Control what you can control to make your goals more easily achievable,” Klapow says.

Last, and most important, Klapow says you must have incentives to meet your resolutions.

“Treat yourself. You have to be good to yourself and your new behaviors. The principle is simple: Reward a good behavior, and it will happen again.”

Released: 12/8/2011

Source: University of Alabama at Birmingham

Related Link:

http://www.newswise.com/articles/resolutions-are-a-waste-if-you-don-t-plan-to-achieve-them

How Does He Do It? Researcher Explains How Santa Delivers Presents in One Night

Newswise — Don’t believe in Santa Claus? Magic, you say? In fact, science and technology explain how Santa is able to deliver toys to good girls and boys around the world in one night, according to a North Carolina State University researcher.

NC State’s Dr. Larry Silverberg, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering, can explain the science and engineering principles that allow Santa, also known as Kris Kringle or Saint Nicholas, to pull off the magical feat year after year.

Silverberg was team leader on a first-of-its-kind visiting scholars program at Santa’s Workshop-North Pole Labs (NPL) last year. “Children shouldn’t put too much credence in the opinions of those who say it’s not possible to deliver presents all over the world in one night,” Silverberg says.

With his cherubic smile and twinkling eyes, Santa may appear to be merely a right jolly old elf, but he and his NPL staff have a lot going on under the funny-looking hats, Silverberg says. Their advanced knowledge of electromagnetic waves, the space/time continuum, nanotechnology, genetic engineering and computer science easily trumps the know-how of contemporary scientists.

Silverberg says that Santa has a personal pipeline to children’s thoughts – via a listening antenna that combines technologies currently used in cell phones and EKGs – which informs him that Mary in Miami hopes for a surfboard, while Michael from Minneapolis wants a snowboard. A sophisticated signal processing system filters the data, giving Santa clues on who wants what, where children live, and even who’s been bad or good. Later, all this information will be processed in an onboard sleigh guidance system, which will provide Santa with the most efficient delivery route.

However, Silverberg adds that letters to Santa via snail mail still get the job done. “While he takes advantage of emerging technologies,” Silverberg says, “Santa is, in many ways, a traditionalist.”

Silverberg is not so naïve as to think that Santa and his reindeer can travel approximately 200 million square miles – making stops in some 80 million homes – in one night. Instead, he posits that Santa uses his knowledge of the space/time continuum to form what Silverberg calls “relativity clouds.”

“Based on his advanced knowledge of the theory of relativity, Santa recognizes that time can be stretched like a rubber band, space can be squeezed like an orange and light can be bent,” Silverberg says. “Relativity clouds are controllable domains – rips in time – that allow him months to deliver presents while only a few minutes pass on Earth. The presents are truly delivered in a wink of an eye.”

With a detailed route prepared and his list checked twice through the onboard computer on the technologically advanced sleigh, Santa is ready to deliver presents. His reindeer – genetically bred to fly, balance on rooftops and see well in the dark – don’t actually pull a sleigh loaded down with toys. Instead, each house becomes Santa’s workshop as he utilizes his “magic bag of toys” – a nano-toymaker that is able to fabricate toys inside the children’s homes. The presents are grown on the spot, as the nano-toymaker creates – atom by atom – toys out of snow and soot, much like DNA can command the growth of organic material like tissues and body parts.

And there’s really no need for Santa to enter the house via chimney, although Silverberg says he enjoys doing that every so often. Rather, the same relativity cloud that allows Santa to deliver presents in what seems like a wink of an eye is also used to “morph” Santa into people’s homes.

Finally, many people wonder how Santa and the reindeer can eat all the food left out for them. Silverberg says they take just a nibble at each house. The remainder is either left in the house or placed in the sleigh’s built-in food dehydrator, where it is preserved for future consumption. It takes a long time to deliver all those presents, after all.

“This is merely an overview, based on what we learned at the NPL, of Santa’s delivery methods,” Silverberg says. “Without these tools, it would be impossible for him to accomplish his annual mission, given the human, physical and engineering constraints we face today.”

Released: 12/6/2011

Source: North Carolina State University

Related Link:

http://newswise.com/articles/researcher-explains-how-santa-delivers-presents-in-one-night

Some Great Ideas to Help You Make the Most of Your Holiday Shopping!

Newswise — Purchasing gifts for loved ones consumes much of our time in the weeks leading up to the holidays. Luckily, there are lots of tricks and tips that you can employ to help you get the best deals on the perfect gifts while saving yourself time and money.

‘Twas the night before the sale
If you know that a retailer is holding a sale, try shopping after 6 p.m. the night before it is set to begin. You might find the discounts are already marked.

Buy in bulk
If you’ve got friends or relatives who are all equally important to you, buy them all the same gift in different colours or themes as a memento. This strategy can easily be turned into a tradition and something your family and friends look forward to.

Shop around
A consumer tip: don’t forget to comparison shop on the Internet and to ask a retailer if an item might go on promotion within the next month. Most holiday promotions are planned in advance and stores should know what is going to be featured. Great deals can also be found on group-buying websites such as Onespout.com, Groupon and other coupon-sharing sites.

Personal Touch Baskets
Create a basket that suits a particular person. Collect small items on a theme. If you create baskets for multiple people on your list you can take advantage of bulk shopping by buying larger quantities and dividing them.

Make it a Green Christmas
The number of eco-friendly products is expanding every season, so you should be able to find something for everyone on your list. Also, green shopping can be easy shopping if you consider alternative gifts such as charitable donations, movie/concert/stage show tickets, spa packages, hotel stays, etc.

Don’t Lose Momentum
If you can hang on just one more day you can get all of next year’s gifts purchased this year on Boxing Day. If you can’t face the crowds, hang in just another week or two and clean up at the January sales.

Shop Early
Retailers are keeping their inventories leaner and leaner, so ensure that the ‘must-have’ gifts are purchased early. Plan your shopping during the week so that you avoid weekend crowds and ensure that you can get help from salespeople.

Parking Lot Safety Measures
If you take presents to the car and plan to do more shopping, move the car so it’s not obvious that you’re storing goods there. Keep any parcels covered or in the trunk, so it is not obvious that they are in the car.

Resist City Parking
When shopping in the city, using transit is the economical and direct route. Park close to a transit hub and buy a day pass on the TTC or GO Transit. Then browse at your leisure, saving your large, bulky purchases until the end of your shopping day.

Released: 12/1/2011

Source: Ryerson University

Related Link:

http://www.newswise.com/articles/make-the-most-of-your-holiday-shopping-ryerson-retail-expert

World Aids Update… Unparalleled global progress in HIV response but sustained investment vital

GENEVA, 30 November 2011—Global progress in both preventing and treating HIV emphasizes the benefits of sustaining investment in HIV/AIDS over the longer term. The latest report by the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF and UNAIDS Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Response indicates that increased access to HIV services  resulted in a 15% reduction of new infections over the past decade and a 22% decline in AIDS-related deaths in the last five years.

“It has taken the world ten years to achieve this level of momentum,” says Gottfried Hirnschall, Director of WHO’s HIV Department. “There is now a very real possibility of getting ahead of the epidemic. But this can only be achieved by both sustaining and accelerating this momentum over the next decade and beyond.”

Advances in HIV science and programme innovations over the past year add hope for future progress. In times of economic austerity it will be essential to rapidly apply new science, technologies and approaches to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of HIV programmes in countries.

The report highlights what is already working:

  • Improved access to HIV testing services enabled 61% of pregnant women in eastern and southern Africa to receive testing and counseling for HIV – up from 14% in 2005.
  • Close to half (48%) of pregnant women in need receive effective medicines to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in 2010.
  • Antiretroviral therapy (ART), which not only improves the health and well-being of people living with HIV but also stops further HIV transmission, is available now for 6.65 million people in low- and middle-income countries, accounting for 47% of the 14.2 million people eligible to receive it.

When people are healthier, they are better able to cope financially. The report acknowledges that investment in HIV services could lead to total gains of up to US$ 34 billion by 2020 in increased economic activity and productivity, more than offsetting the costs of ART programmes.

“2011 has been a game changing year. With new science, unprecedented political leadership and continued progress in the AIDS response, countries have a window of opportunity to seize this momentum and take their responses to the next level,” said Paul De Lay, Deputy Executive Director, Programme, UNAIDS. “By investing wisely, countries can increase efficiencies, reduce costs and improve on results. However, gains made to date are being threatened by a decline in resources for AIDS.”

The report also points to what still needs to be done:

  • More than half of the people who need antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries are still unable to access it. Many of them do not even know that they have HIV.
  • Despite the growing body of evidence as to what countries need to focus on to make a real impact on their epidemics, some are still not tailoring their programmes for those who are most at risk and in need. In many cases, groups including adolescent girls, people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, transgender people, sex workers, prisoners and migrants remain unable to access HIV prevention and treatment services.

Worldwide, the vast majority (64%) of people aged 15-24 living with HIV today are female. The rate is even higher in sub-Saharan Africa where girls and young women make up 71% of all young people living with HIV – essentially because prevention strategies are not reaching them.

Key populations are continually marginalized. In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, more than 60% of those living with HIV are people who inject drugs. But injecting drug users account for only 22% of those receiving ART.

Although better services to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV have averted some 350 000 new infections among children, some 3.4 million children are living with HIV – many of whom lack HIV treatment. Only about one in four children in need of HIV treatment in low- and middle-income countries received it in 2010, as compared to 1 in 2 adults.

“While there have been gains in treatment, care and support available to adults, we note that progress for children is slower,” says Leila Pakkala, Director of the UNICEF Office in Geneva.  “The coverage of HIV interventions for children remains alarmingly low. Through concerted action and equity-focused strategies, we must make sure that global efforts are working for children as well as adults”.

HIV in regions and countries

In 2010, HIV epidemics and responses in different parts of the world vary with shifting trends, progress rates and outcomes.

Sub-Saharan Africa recorded the biggest overall annual increase–30%–in the number of people accessing ART. Three countries (Botswana, Namibia and Rwanda) have achieved universal coverage (80%) for HIV prevention, treatment and care services. The regional ART coverage rate stood at 49% at the end of 2010. Approximately 50% of pregnant women living with HIV receive treatment to prevent mother-to child transmission of HIV. And 21% of children in need are able to get paediatric HIV treatments. There were 1.9 million new infections in the region, where 22.9 million people are living with HIV. There are some major disparities in progress between different parts of the region. Countries in Eastern and Southern Africa have reached much higher coverage rates for ART (56%) and PMTCT (64%) than countries in Western and Central Africa (30% and 18% respectively).

Asia shows a stabilizing epidemic overall, but new infections are very high in some communities. Of the 4.8 million people living with HIV in Asia, nearly half (49%) are in India. Antiretroviral treatment coverage is increasing with 39% of adults and children in need of HIV treatment having access. Coverage of PMTCT services is relatively low- (16%).

Eastern Europe and Central Asia presents a dramatic growth in HIV, with new infections increasing by 250% in the past decade. Over 90% of these infections occur in just two countries: Russia and Ukraine. The region demonstrates high coverage rates for PMTCT and paediatric HIV treatment (with 78% and 65% coverage rates respectively). However, ART coverage is very low at 23%, particularly among the most affected people- the ones who inject drugs.

Middle East and North Africa records the highest number of HIV infections ever in the region (59 000) in 2010, which represents a 36% increase over the past year. Coverage of HIV services are very low in the region: 10% for ART, 5% for paediatric treatment and 4% for PMTCT.

Latin America and the Caribbean have a stabilizing epidemic with 1.5 million living with HIV in Latin America and 200 000 in the Caribbean. HIV is predominantly among networks of men who have sex with men in Latin America. In the Caribbean though, women are the more affected group accounting for 53% of people living with HIV. The region has ART coverage of 63% for adults and 39% for children.  Coverage for effective PMTCT regimen is relatively high at 74%.

Sustaining the HIV response through the next 10 years

  • Countries are already showing marked efficiency gains in HIV programmes: South Africa reduced HIV drug costs by more than 50% over a two-year period by implementing a new tendering strategy for procurement. Uganda saved US$2 million by shifting to simpler paediatric regimens. Such efficiencies are promoted through Treatment 2.0 – an initiative launched by WHO and UNAIDS in 2010 to promote simpler, cheaper and easier-to-deliver HIV treatment and diagnostic tools, combined with decentralized services that are supported by communities.
  • WHO is developing new guidance on the strategic use of antiretroviral drugs for both prevention and treatment.
  • WHO’s “Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV/AIDS, 2011-2015”, endorsed by the World Health Assembly in May 2011 highlights the importance of continuing efforts to optimize HIV treatment and “combination” prevention – the use of a range of different approaches to reduce people’s risk of infection.

The 2011 “Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Response” is the comprehensive report on both the epidemiology and progress rates in access to HIV services globally and in regions and countries. It has been jointly developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNAIDS, in collaboration with national and international partners.

The full report is available from: http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/progress_report2011/.

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